Tag Archive | CRFM

Caribbean Looks to Aquaculture Food Security to Combat Climate Change

The following was published by IPS on Dec 10, 2015

by Zadie Neufville

Jimmi Jones and wife Sandra Lee’s fish farm in Belize City is unique. His fish tanks supply the water and nutrients  his vegetable garden needs and the plants filter the water that is recycled back to the tanks.

Jones has been showing off the “JimSan Aquaponics” style of organic farming in meetings across the Caribbean to support efforts by the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) in promoting aquaculture as a food security option in combatting global climate change.

As global warming increases sea temperatures, wild catch fishery could decline by as much as 50 per cent, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has warned. Warming seas are expected to devastate regional fisheries by shifting the travel routes of pelagic fish and the distribution of high-value species while causing die offs of many other popular marine species.

A Sept 2015 study from the University of British Columbia noted that warmer seas could alter the distribution of many marine species and worsen the effects of pollution, over-fishing and degraded habitats, resulting in economic fallouts worldwide.

To ensure food security, the CRFM, the regional body responsible for the responsible use of regional resources, is promoting aquaculture as part of a range of initiatives to build climate-resilient fisheries. A five-year plan has been drafted by the Secretariat and a working group established to guide the process.

The CRFM strategy is among activities the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) proposed to lessen the impacts of climate change on small-scale producers.

Jones’ aquaponics operation illustrates how aquaculture can help farmers, particularly small subsistence fish and food farmers, to boost their family income while providing adequate food and protein for the table.

Sandra Jones reaping vegetables for sale

Sandra Jones reaping vegetables for sale

With modifications, this method of aquaculture can be applied on large or small operations; it reduces water use by 90 per cent while allowing farmers to produce up to 10 times more vegetables than terrestrial plots within the same footprint, while eliminating the need for pesticides and other chemicals. The addition of renewable energy systems could further reduce production costs.

“In essence you feed the fish, they produce waste, the waste goes through a bacterial process that breaks it down from ammonia to nitrate, which is basically plant food, along with other processes that happen. You’re growing fish and vegetables using the same infrastructure; the water goes through a filtration system and you grow the plants without using soil,” Jones explained.

Despite what seems to be an easy enough undertaking, aquaculture has been on the decline in the Caribbean. In 2012, production plummeted from between 5,000 and 6,000 tonnes to 500 tonnes when the Jamaican fish-farming industry collapsed under pressure from cheap imports.

Aquaculture production in Jamaica, at one time the largest producer in the region, fell from around 11,000 tonnes in 2010, to just over 7,700 in 2011, falling even further in recent years.

Jamaican fish farmer Vincent Wright pointed to government policies that have made it difficult for them to compete. “The global economic downturn, high cost of energy, theft and a lack of adequate and suitable water supplies have made things even harder,” he said.

Executive Director of CRFM Milton Haughton has challenged regional governments to implement systems and regulations that will help investors to “overcome the impediments” aquaculture farmers face.

“We do need to provide the necessary legislative and regulatory framework, the policy support and the incentives to our fish farmers and private sector investors, so that they can grow the sector and increase production, not only for local consumption but also for exports,” he said.

In the last year or so, the CTA and the CRFM partnered to review the development aquaculture in region and in bid to identify the challenges, find solutions and guide the re-development of the industry, Haughton said. Among the improvements, policies regarding the development and distribution of land and water, as well as the production of brood stock and food.

Jimmi gives a tour of the farm

Jimmi gives a tour of the farm

Wright, who is also a scientist, said most Jamaican fish farms are built on marginal lands that are prone to flooding and with limited access to water. Given the locations and the existing conditions of local farms, climate changes will likely cause increased flooding, and disease, while reducing the availability of water for farms during periods of drought, he said.

The admission of Martinique and Guadeloupe to the CRFM family in 2014 is making up for the lack of research in the industry through Martinique-based French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer) , an organisation with decades of research and development experience in tropical fish culture, nutrition, disease and mortality in farmed species.

The Centre also draws on the expertise of the national research capabilities of the French Republic. Before now, the 18-member states of the CRFM were short on aquaculture research. Now Ifremer is committed to helping the region develop its research capabilities. Useful as climate change is predicted to have serious economic effects on world wild catch fisheries.

But while scientists predict heavy losses for the Caribbean, they also suggest there is sufficient information for governments to begin to develop policies to help the industry adapt to the expected changes.

Jones sees aquaculture as a way of adaptation to climate change. This year he expanded the 111.5 square metre (1,200 square feet) green house to 557 sq metres (6,000 square feet), to double production in the short term with the possibility of a five-fold increase at peak agricultural production periods.

Jamaica and across the Caribbean were affected by extended droughts in the last two years and forced Wright and his counterparts to cut back production, but Jones’ green house and fish tanks were not affected. The system lost roughly one per cent, between 379 litres and 750 litres (100 and 200 gallons), from roughly 53,000 litres (14,000 gallons) of water running through the system at any one time, he said.

“Aquaculture is the way to go if we are to provide adequate protein for our people,” he said.

In fact, the position is supported by the findings of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in its 2014 State of Fisheries and Aquaculture report.

“Based on its dynamic performance over the last 30 years, with the fairly stable catches from capture fisheries, it is likely that the future growth of the fisheries sector will come mainly from aquaculture,” the report said.

According to the FAO, between 1990 and 2000, global production of food fish production grew 9.5 per cent per year from 32.2 million to 66.6 million tonnes at an average of 6.2 per cent per year between 2000 and 2012.

Regional growth has, however, remained static.

Regardless of the methods used, aquaculture “offers the region the best opportunities to provide a healthy, safe, guaranteed supply of food for our people,” Jones said.

Source: Caribbean Looks to Aquaculture Food Security to Combat Climate Change

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US funded Programme to protect Caribbean marine resources launched

by Zadie Neufville

The following article was published by SCiDEv.NET on September 17, 2015
A $ 12. 5 million Programme will help to Improve the conservation and management of marine areas of the Caribbean and to protect the livelihoods of millions People Who depend on the marine ecosystem of the region.

The Caribbean Marine Biodiversity Programme (HMPC), funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (US $ 10 million) and the The Nature Conservancy (US $ 2.5 million) was Launched on August 21 in Grenada.

“The overall objective is to reduce CMBP of Threats to marine-coastal biodiversity in priority areas Including Such high biodiversity ecosystems as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds in order to Achieve sustained biodiversity conservation; Maintain critical ecosystem services, and Realise tangible improvements in human wellbeing for Communities adjacent to marine protected areas, “Sheldon Cohen, Chief of Party for the project Said to SciDev.Net.

Birds flock to fishermen's boats at landing of Pedro Bank, Jamaica.  CHECK WITH MACR FOR USAGE RIGHTS

Birds flock to fishermen’s boats at landing of Pedro Bank, Jamaica. CHECK WITH MACR FOR USAGE RIGHTS

One of The most biologically diverse in the world, Caribbean ecosystems degraded at a rate Have you Placed That many of the region’s Most Traded and Consumed species on the Threatened and endangered lists.

Head of the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) Milton Haughton NOTED That the five-year CMBP is significant, as it would Provide the resources needed for the region “to address some of the pressing needs in respect of marine resource conservation and management”.

TNC will work in collaboration With non-governmental organization in Five Countries of the Caribbean (Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) to Promote conservation, Improve monitoring, management and protection of fish sanctuaries and other protected areas .

“This is good for sustainability and the rebuilding of the fish stocks,” Veteran fisherman and former president of the Jamaica Fishermen’s Cooperative Union Havelon Honeyghan Noting Said His community of Whitehouse, St Elizabeth urgently needs help.

“There are no fish left in Whitehouse. We are proposing That They Also install artificial reef some inshore and offshore Because the situation here is getting worse, “I Said.

Head of C-CAM Ingrid Parchment SciDev Told That the Programme would help Jamaica to design and Implement effective management strategies, Establish a sanctuary and reduces the Threats to the marine environment around the Pedro Cays (Peter Banks).

Pedro Banks is the main fishing gound for the CONHC Strombus gigas

Pedro Banks is the main fishing gound for the CONHC Strombus gigas

These are a group of cays and islets offshore Jamaica’s south coast, and the Whitehouse fishing village. It is Jamaica’s largest and MOST lucrative fishing community and the main harvesting ground for the Queen Conch ( Strombus gigas ).

Said Cohen, the project will work Also With the “national Governments of the targetted Countries as well as the CRFM,” the CARICOM institution responsible for the regional management of marine resources.

The hope is to build “more sustainable fish stocks, coral reef and related ecosystems healthier Establish trust funds to finance marine conservation activities into the future,” He Said.

 

SPANISH
launch program to protect marine resources in the Caribbean

A program of US $ 12. 5 million will help improve conservation and management of marine areas of the Caribbean and protect the livelihoods of millions of people in the region who depend on marine ecosystems.

The Marine Biodiversity for the Caribbean Program, funded by USAID (US $ 10 million) and Conservation (US $ 2.5 million), was announced on August 21 in Granada.

“The overall objective of the program is to reduce threats to marine biodiversity in priority areas of the Caribbean, including high biodiversity and coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass ecosystems; maintain essential ecosystem services, and achieve tangible improvements in welfare and communities adjacent to MPAs “sums Sheldon Cohen, director of the project, SciDev.Net .

The Caribbean is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world, but their ecosystems are so degraded that many of the most marketable and locally consumed species on the list of threatened and endangered species.

Milton Haughton, head of Regional Fisheries Mechanism in the Caribbean, said that the 5-year program is important because the region will provide the resources necessary “to address some pressing needs of conservation and management of marine resources.”

Conservation work in partnership with NGOs in five Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Granada and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) to promote conservation and improve the monitoring, management and protection of fisheries and sanctuaries other areas.

“This is good for the sustainability and reconstruction of fisheries resources,” he told SciDev.Net Havelon Honeyghan, former president of the Fishermen’s Cooperative Union of Jamaica. It adds that, for example, community, St Elizabeth Whitehouse, requires urgent help.

Peter Banks

Peter Banks

“There are no fish in Whitehouse. We are also proposing that some artificial reefs installed in the onshore and offshore because the situation here is getting worse, “he stresses.

The head of C-CAM, Ingrid Parchment, told SciDev.Net that in Jamaica, the program will help to design and implement effective management strategies, establish a sanctuary and reduce threats to the marine environment around the cays of Pedro (Pedro Banks ).

This is a group of cays and islets offshore of the south coast of Jamaica, and the fishing village of Whitehouse. It is the largest and most profitable fishing community of the country and the main point of harvest of queen conch ( Strombus gigas ).

The project will also work with the national governments of the countries to which it is addressed, as well as the Regional Fisheries Mechanism, Caribbean Community institution responsible for managing the regional marine resources, reports Caribbean Cohen.

Is expected to create “more sustainable fish stocks, healthier corals and related ecosystems, establishing trust funds for marine conservation activities in the future,” he remarks.

http://www.scidev.net/america-latina/pesquerias/noticias/lanzan-programa-para-proteger-recursos-marinos-del-caribe.html http://www.lighthouse-foundation.org/fileadmin/LHF/PDF/SusGren_Accomplishment_Flyer_2008.pdf

Caribbean Fights to Protect High-Value, Declining Species

by Zadie Neufville

 The following story was published by IPS on Jul 6, 2015
Threats from climate change, declining reefs, overfishing and possible loss of several commercial species are driving the rollout of new policy measures to keep Caribbean fisheries sustainable.

Regional groups and the U.S.-based NGO Wild Earth Guardians have petitioned for the listing of some of the Caribbean’s most economically valuable marine species as vulnerable, endangered or threatened with extinction.

In addition, regional scientists believe that climate change could alter the ranges of some of the larger species and perhaps wipe out existing ones.

Fisheries ministers of the Caribbean say they are concerned that “extra-national activities and decisions” could impact the social and economic well being of their countries and their access to international markets. They have agreed to work together to protect both the sustainability and trade of several high value marine species.

At a meeting in November 2014, the Ministerial Council of the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) expressed alarm at the U.S. government’s decision to list the Nassau Grouper, a commercially traded species, under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA).

Even after successfully thwarting the listing of the Queen Conch (Strombus gigas), they fret that other species would go the way of the Nassau Grouper.

The conch and Nassau grouper are two of 19 Caribbean species the Wild Earth Guardians say are in need of protection. The list includes one coral, one ray, five sharks, two sawfish, four groupers and the Queen Conch.

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The Nassau Grouper, one of 19 species the Wild Earth Guardians petitioned to have protected.

Regional fisheries officials know that such listings will shut down international trade of the affected species. Alternatively, it could lead to rigorous permits and quota systems that prevent trade by vulnerable populations in countries that are without working management structures.

The Guardians say they are driven by the critical state of many Caribbean species and the seemingly insatiable U.S. demand for them. The 14 marine species named are already listed as protected or threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), endangered species associate Taylor Jones told IPS.

“Specifically in terms of the conch, we note that the U.S. appetite for conch meat is having an impact on stocks in the Caribbean,” she said.

Jones noted that when the Guardians take action the aim is to limit the impact of U.S. consumption patterns – which has already caused the collapse of its own conch fishery – on the rest of the world. The United States is the largest importer of conch meat, consuming 78 per cent of production, estimated at between 2,000 and 2,500 pounds annually.

While the Guardians failed in their bid to have the conch included in the ESA, concern for the struggling populations of Conch continue. Even though the U.S. closed Florida’s Conch fisheries in 1986, the population has still not recovered and the fisheries in its Caribbean territories are also in poor shape.

In the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI), one of the region’s largest exporter of the mollusk, biologist Kathleen Woods reports that conch stocks are on the brink of collapse.

“TCI’s conch stocks are now in a critical phase,” she said. “Preliminary results of the conch visual survey indicate that TCI does not have sufficient densities of adult conch to sustain breeding and spawning. This means that unless the fishery is closed to allow the stocks to recover, it will probably collapse within the next four years.”

The CRFM Secretariat says it is already looking at management plans for the species most eaten or exploited by its member states. The secretariat says there is evidence that Nassau Grouper populations and spawning aggregations are in decline and is supporting the listing.

The Secretariat has drafted a strategy to implement minimum standards for the management, conservation and protection for the Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) across all 17 member states. The Secretariat cites concern for falling catches, declining habitats and the absence of adequate management systems in some countries.

In Jamaica, where the lobster and conch fisheries are regulated by the CITES endangered species treaty, authorities are extending protection to other local species that are already stressed from overfishing and climate change, Director of Fisheries Andre Kong told IPS.

“We are looking at bio-degradable traps and will where possible improve the existing management system to include the spotted spiny lobster (Panulirus guttatus) known locally as the chicken lobster,” he said, pointing out that the local species is not governed by the CITES regulations.

Caribbean favorites like the Parrotfish and sea eggs (sea urchins) are in serious decline. Regional groups are seeking to ban those and other species to protect remaining populations and the reef.  Some countries have already restricted the capture of the Parrotfish and the IUCN has recommended its listing as a specially protected species under the Protocol for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol).

Turtle release TCI

Officers from the Turks and Caicos Environment and Marine Affairs Department releasing a tagged turtle. TCI one the few places that still allow the capture and consumption of Turtles

CRFM has already implemented a management plan for the Eastern Caribbean Flying fish, which supports a small but lucrative trade in the countries that fish for the species. A coral reef action plan is also in place, a review of the legislation of several member states has been completed, alongside the rollout of public awareness programmes for regional fishers. One drawback: the rules are non-binding and left up to individual governments to implement.

Woods, who until mid-2014 headed the TCI government’s Environment and Marine Department, noted that despite the existence of regulations that exceed those introduced by the CRFM, conch and lobster habitats in that country “continue to be degraded and lost because of poor development practices like dredging, the use of caustic materials like bleach for fishing and other activities.”

Veteran TCI fisherman Oscar Talbot echoes Woods belief that a combination of factors, including a lack of political will, poor enforcement and corruption in the regulatory agencies, are the reasons the Conch stocks are close to collapsing.

“Poacher boats, illegal divers and some politicians with their own (processing) plants have played a role in the improper exploitation of the fish, lobster and conch. We also have a lot of fisherman and poachers taking juvenile conch in and out of season,” he said.

TCI is one of the few countries that continue to allow the capture and consumption of sea turtles and sharks, but Woods believes exploitation of these species by locals is sustainable. Talbot wants fishers to stick to the rules and exploit the resources during the open seasons only.

A fisherman for over 40 years, Talbot said the unregulated catches are impacting all the islands’ local fisheries. He is concerned that undersized conchs of up to 18 to the pound have been taken, a sore point for the grandfather who sits on the fisheries advisory council of the TCI.

But while regional leaders express “outrage” at the actions of the NGOs, regional fishers support Talbot’s view that only external pressure will force governments to act.

For most countries, the lack of personnel, funding and illegal fishing have hampered progress. This is not lost on the Guardians.

lobster 2

Caribbean Spiny Lobster

“In general it appears that the region is struggling with limited resources for conservation, including lack of funding and lack of personnel for enforcement of existing regulations,” Jones said.

And while Talbot and Woods lobby TCI Governor Peter Beckingham to champion immediate changes to the fisheries legislation approved and agreed by local fishers more than a year ago, Jones echoes their aspirations:

“It is our hope that ESA listing would make more U.S. funding and personnel available for use by local conservation programmes,” she said.

Edited by Kitty Stapp

 

Caribbean nations move to protect dwindling lobtster

by Zadie Neufville
This article was first published on June 2, 2015 by SciDevNet (Global)

Caribbean countries have agreed a set of common rules to manage and conserve a shared species of lobster, following scientific evidence of its decline. The member states of the Caribbean Community met in Grenada in May to sign a declaration providing minimum standards for the fishing of Panulirus argus, known as the Caribbean spiny lobster. It will be valid in the 17 nations of the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM).

lobster 1

Caribbean Spiny Lobster

The Caribbean spiny lobster is a major source of income for local fisheries, and is critical to the socioeconomic wellbeing of many Caribbean communities, the signatories said. The deal follows growing concerns about the long-term economic viability of lobster fishing in the region. According to the CRFM, catches are declining and overexploitation of the species is having knock-on effects on other marine life.

Milton Haughton, head of the CRFM secretariat, says that socioeconomic importance aside, the lobster plays a critical role in maintaining the “ecological integrity and delicate balance” of the coral reef ecosystem. “We therefore need to be very careful in the way we harvest the resources,” he says.

lobster fest03 017

Workers processing lobster tails for export. (photo from the Beliize Fisheries Dept)

“These are so important to us that we cannot allow the stocks to decline through poor management and irresponsible harvesting.” The non-binding agreement aims to improve and standardise data collection on lobster catches and encourage the use of biodegradable traps to reduce ocean littering and protect other marine species. It also aims to reduce illegal and unsustainable fishing to strengthen conservation, the CRFM said.

Haughton notes that better use of data would improve local conservation research, which would in turn strengthen understanding of the biological, economic and nutritional aspects of lobster fishing.
“All of this requires a scientific approach informed by good governance systems and intimate knowledge,” he says.

In most Caribbean countries, lobster fishing is governed by the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species, which includes a quota system, periodic scientific surveys and a limited fishing season. In the Caribbean, however, capacity for such monitoring varies between states, and a lack of regulations around lobster fishing puts the resource at risk, the Grenada meeting heard.

chicken lobster

Chicken lobster aka spotted spiny lobster

Caribbean fisheries’ representatives cautiously welcomed the deal and called for rules that distinguish between subsistence fisheries and large commercial fishing operations.

Andre Kong, the director of fisheries in the Jamaican ministry of agriculture, says that, for example, not all the recommendations are applicable to his country. But, he says that the declaration would help Jamaica design better evidence-based strategies to manage its lobster-fishing industry, including the spotted spiny lobster, another local species.

“We are looking, for example, at biodegradable traps and will make adaptations where necessary to improve the existing management systems,” says Kong.

Caribbean Community Climate-Smarting Fisheries, But Slowly

By Zadie Neufville
THIS ARTICLE WAS PUBLISHED BY IPS ON MARCH 17– Caribbean nations have begun work on a plan to ‘climate smart’ the region’s fisheries as part of overall efforts to secure food supplies.

The concept is in keeping with plans by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) to improve the “integration of agriculture and climate readiness” as the region prepares to deal with the impacts of climate change and the increasing demand for food.

Olu Ajayi, CTA’s senior programme coordinator, told IPS in an email that climate-smarting the region’s aquatic resources will “enable the sector to continue to contribute to sustainable development, while reducing the vulnerability associated with the negative impacts of climate change”.
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“Climate-smart fisheries require improving efficiency in the use of natural resources to produce fish, maintaining the resilience of aquatic systems and the communities that rely on them,” he noted.

The fisheries sector of the Caribbean Community is an important source of livelihoods and sustenance for the estimated 182,000 people who directly depend on these resources. In recent years, fishermen across the region have reported fewer and smaller fish in their nets and scientists believe these are signs of the times, not just the result of over-exploitation and habitat degradation.

“We believe the signs of climate change are already affecting our vital fisheries sector in the increase in seaweed events causing the loss of access to fishing grounds and increased frequency of coral bleaching events,” Peter A. Murray, Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) Secretariat’s Programme Manager, Fisheries Management and Development, told IPS.

Listing some of the predicted changes, including climatic variations that promote the spread of invasive species, as well as increased salination, Murray noted that climate change is also expected to impact traditional species and contribute to coastal erosion due to more frequent and devastating hurricanes.

In fact, the secretariat’s Deputy Executive Director Susan Singh Renton told reporters at the Caribbean Week of Agriculture last November that warmer seas could also push larger species to the north, making them less available to regional fishers. CRFM is the Caricom organisation charged with the promotion of responsible use of regional fisheries.

Two weeks after launching its Climate Smart Agriculture project at the 13th celebration of Caribbean Week of Agriculture in Paramaribo, Suriname in November 2014, the CTA began development of several initiatives. The programmes, they said would help the region to “tackle the impact of agriculture on small-scale producers” – among them small-scale fishers and fish farmers – in a way that will facilitate the construction of “resilient agricultural systems”.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The project came on the heels of the announcement of a Caribbean Community Common Fisheries Policy (CCCFP) and the CRFM Climate Change Action Plan. These are two of several proposals by Community organisations to monitor and regulate capture fisheries as well as implement common goals and rules on the adaptation, management, and conservation of the resources.

Ajayi pointed out that since 2010, the CTA has been working closely with regional agencies including the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (5Cs) and the CRFM to implement the Regional Framework for Achieving Development Resilience to Climate Change.

Timely, since some of the species most fished and traded by the region’s fishermen are already under pressure from over-exploitation, degraded habitats and pollution. The Queen Conch, the Caribbean Spiny Lobster, the Nassau Grouper and the Parrotfish are on a growing list of species under closer scrutiny for tougher regulations on their capture and trade. Climate change is expected to make the problems worse.

“The support is aimed at developing common regional policy platforms and advocating regional policy initiatives in regional and global forums; strengthening national capacities through training and other supports and conducting comparative analyses of issues on a regional and sub-regional basis,” Ajayi said.

Scientists agree that there is need for immediate action. Technical officer in Jamaica’s Climate Change Division, Dr. Orville Grey, told reporters recently at the Jamaica Observer’s weekly exchange: “If you look at what is happening with sea surface temperatures, you’ll see that we are losing our corals through the warming of the oceans.”

He continued, “With the projections, we’re looking at almost total loss of our corals. For us in the Caribbean our reefs are important, not from the perspective of tourism, but from the perspective of livelihoods when you consider fisheries”.

Murray pointed out that because the marine resources are shared, it is important that the Caribbean Community work together to implement supporting policies and agreements.

He noted, “The region has an action plan to address climate change in fisheries, but to be fully ready it has to be taken aboard by all stakeholders.”

There are also efforts to empower fisherfolk to access and share information that will enable them to participate in policy development at the local and regional levels. But fisherfolk are still not ready.
Mitchell Lay, coordinator of the Caribbean Network of Fisherfolk Organisations (CNFO), said, however, climate smarting is on the group’s agenda for 2015.

Both the governments and NGOs have upped their activities to protect the resources. But while the former have been slow to act at the national and regional levels, environmentalists are upping the ante by seeking to protect several species that are seen to be in need of protection.
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Two years ago, U.S.-based WildEarth Guardian petitioned to have the Queen Conch listed as threatened or endangered under U.S. law. For Caribbean nations like the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Bahamas, Jamaica and Belize that depend on economically important species like conch and lobster, the ability to trade is critical to the local economies.
On Nov. 3, 2014 the NOAA denied the petition, but many believe regional trade of these species is on borrowed time, particularly as the effects of climate change grows.

“The CRFM Action Plan seeks to work towards a regional society and economy that is resilient to a changing climate and enhanced through comprehensive disaster management and sustainable use of aquatic resources,” Murray said.

He pointed to the five objectives of the plan, which among other things include actions to mainstream climate change adaptation into the sustainable development agendas of member states, and promoting actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and employing renewable and clean energy sources. Historically, however, the region has been slow to enact Community policies.

Key to successful climate smarting is the participation of the fisherfolk who have been the beneficiaries of several CTA-sponsored programmes to help them access information; assist them to become more efficient; and to enable them to engage in policy development at the local and regional levels.

The next steps are dependent on the implementation of relevant and necessary policies and the strengthening the legislation. Until then, fisherfolk and supporting institutions continue to wait.